Afghanistan is having a very long historical background. It dates back to 1500 BC when Islam was far away from this region. Different dynasties established their foundations and were ruined away. The paper brings into light major common factors among Pakistan and Afghanistan. It l highlights the past of Afghanistan before the Islamic period and after the arrival of Islam in this region. Especially the historical background which is totally the same among the two states. Similarly, rulers consolidated their empire from Afghanistan to India. The paper also elaborates different dynasties and how residents of the concerned area faced such aggressions with though resistance. Who never surrendered against any foreign rule and gained independence as a sovereign state. It still survives to face superpowers’ rivalry that affect the very foundations of Indo-Afghan states.
Pre-Islamic period, Post-Islamic period, historical background, Muslim rulers
The Kabul city established in (1500 BC-551) Aryans and the Medes rule. Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this period, as well as a sign of the initial wandering Iron age. Amid 2000-1200 BC, a group of tribes of Indo-European linguistic identified as Aryan started migration into this area. They split into three diverse groups Iranic peoples, Nuristani, and Indo-Aryans in the early phase, probably during 1500-1000 BC in what today is called Afghanistan (Dupree, 1977). Origin of a new religion in Northern Afghanistan, the city of Bactria (Balkh) was home-based of Zarathustra founder of the Zoroastrian religion. This religion spread on the tremendous speed and became one of the most influential religions of the world at that time old Aryans followed this religion for centuries. In 550 BC Persian had replaced Median rule within their sphere and even enlarge to past Median imperial boundaries (Jayaram V, 2010). Bactria troops not ever fought against the advancing armies of Alexandra the great in 330 BC and decisively defeated and withdrew from an army of Greco-Macedonian (Politics, 2011).
Alexander began his invasion of East in 334 B.C and attacked the Persian empire. A severe battle took place with Darius-ll, king of Persia in which Darius was defeated. Alexander turned towards Southward and occupied Khorasan, Sistan, Baluchistan, and Kandahar. Established a city of Alexandria, nowadays know this city as Kandahar. Then from Bactria, he crosses the threshold of Hindu Kush followed the Kabul river and entered India in 327 BC. During his expedition, faced tough resistance from the local tribes, no one submitted him without a firm struggle (Ghani, 1987). In 323 BC, soon after his death, Seleucus, the clever chief officer of Alexander took minimal control of Eastern Afghanistan and founded the Seleucid dynasty. Seleucus entered India, at that time found Punjab totally different. Seleucus faced though resistance from the long-awaited army of Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire. In which Gupta well, trained army get ahead to annexed, the whole of Afghanistan from the south and entire India excluding the Southern peninsula, besides lower Himalaya and Nepal. Thus, the Gupta dynasty ruled over half of Afghanistan, and half remained in the hands of the Seleucidan Empire (Ghani, 1987).
In 120 years, the rule of Mauryan in Southern Afghanistan, ultimately Buddhism became a most important religious conviction along with Zoroastrianism (Politics, 2011). Constructions of Stupas, Art and Architecture technologically advanced during this period and reached a peak in Ashoka. His construction of Stupas, roads and rest stops found throughout the Indian sub-continent. Greek and Aramaic Edicts has been discovered in Kandahar, written in admirable classical Greek with complicated philosophical terms (www.Gandhara.com).
Greco-Bactrians (329-326 BC
Diodotus, the Greek governor of Bactria, asserted the liberation and led the foundation of an independent Greco-Bactrian kingdom. In mid of the 3rd century BC, an independent Hellenistic state was declared in Bactria and the authority of Seleucids and Mauryan was overthrown in Western and Southern Afghanistan. In 190 BC. Bactria son established a large army and began the conquest of Eastern Persia, which added all the Afghan territories up to the Indus river and continued to Kabul and Western Punjab (Ghazi, 1987). Due to internal dissensions and in the West disputes spread out by the Greek and Hellenistic rulers which cause the defeat of the Graeco-Bactrian Empire (Country profile, 2008).
Kushan Empire (150 BC-300 AD)
The Parthians nomadic Iranians people arrived in Western Asia in the 3rd and 2nd century BC. In the modern-day territory of Afghanistan, they made large inroads. Almost 100 years later from the North, another Indo-European group the Kushan entered Afghanistan and dominate most parts of the country and establish an empire (Dupree, 1977). To defeat central Asian tribes the Kushan empire spread from Kabul River valley. In mid of the 1st century BC, Afghanistan became the control base of the Kushans dynasty which spread from Pamir mountains in the North to Ganga river valley in India. The most influential ruler of this dynasty was Kanishka, during his time the empire became the base of culture and art and spread from the Arabian sea to Kashmir and in the North to Tibet (country profile).
Sassanian Invasion (226 AD to 651 AD)
The rising powerful Iranian dynasty, one of the powerful rulers of this reign was Nausherwan. The Sassanians annexed Afghanistan in 300 AD. His last ruler Yaz Jard killed and thus Sassanians empire collapsed (Ghani, 1987). The Hephthalites, Indo-European invaders from the North, a wave of a new threat for the poor position of Sassanians and Kushan. The Hephthalites (White Huns) were removed out from Central Asia in the 4th century but were defeated in the 6th Century on Amu Darya territories by the new group of Central Asian nomads, the Gokturks. The ruler of Sajin led the militaries contrary to the Hephthalites but was beaten in the fight of Chach (Tashkent) and Bukhara (Rashid, 2010).
Middle Ages (565-1504 CE)
About 1750 to middle ages Afghanistan was part of Khorasan. Kabul, Kandahar, and Ghazni have shaped the frontier area among the Khorasan and Hindustan (Politics, 2010).
Kabul Shahi Dynasty 3rd to 9th century
After the fall of the Kushan rule, the Shahi reign ruled some portions of the Kabul. They split into Kabul Shahi and Hindu Shahi eras and ruled till the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. Hindu Shahis under Rajput ruler Jayapala, struggled to defend his empire contrary to the Ghaznavids in the current Eastern Pakistan and Afghanistan. To consolidate his empire invaded Ghazni in the rule of Sabotaging and his son Mahmud. However, he was defeated badly and lost control of the entire kingdom from the Indus river to Kabul valley. Jaipal armies were helpless against the Western forces and young Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (History of Afghanistan, 2017). When Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni came to rule in the year 1001, Jaipal attacked Ghazni once more but severely defeated by Ghaznavids forces at the battle of Peshawar. Jaipal subjects thought that he was accountable for the disgrace of the Shahi dynasty, which forced him to commit suicide. Jaipal succeeded by his son Anandapala, who took part in many failed fights agansit Ghaznavids forces, but then ineffective and the Hindu leaders finally exiled (Rashid, 2010).
The Advent of Islam in Afghanistan and in the Indian Sub-Continent
In a time of third Khalifa ‘Usman Bin Afan’ in 31 hijras that the wave of Muhammadan conquest reached Afghanistan. Abdullah bin Amir was then commissioned to conquer Khurasan and within a brief time with the help of his commanding general Hanif thrived to overpower on Herat, Ghor, Nishapur, and Balkh. He appointed Muslims rulers all over and introduce Islam. In the Khalifate of Walid bin Abdul ul Malik, Hajjaj bin Yousaf was placed in charge of Khurasan. Muhammad bin Qasim, the nephew of a distinguished soldier Hajjaj bin Yousaf in 705 A.D invaded Sindh at the age of seventeen with the strength of 6,000 armed forces raised in Basra and Khurasan. After severe resistance defeated and killed Raja Dahar and ruling over Gujrat and Sindh, and went to Multan, ostensibly passing North of the Salt Range (Priestley, 1874). On the death of Abdul Malik, his lieutenant in Khurasan Alpatgin, driven into revolt by the fear of treason at the hands of Mansur, threw off his loyalty in 961 A.D and made Ghazni capital of Western Afghanistan. He was succeeded after 2 years by Sabuktagin, as though to be a Persian princely origin. He has been bought as a slave by Alpatgin, due to his ability and faithfulness gradually raised on the commander-in-chief of king army and well-known all over Hindustan to Turkistan. Married to Alpatgin's daughter succeeded to the throne, in 977 A.D. During his time Raja Jaipal, son Ashtpal (Brahman) ruled Punjab. To keep a check on the Sabuktagin army Raja raised a strong army and marched towards Afghanistan. The two armies prepare to involve but in the last movement Jaipal’s paved way for peace on condition of payment. Reached to his capital (Lahore) Raja was unhappy accompanied by Muhammadan officers, during this period Sabuktagin together an army and swept down to Peshawar. With immense power supported by the surrounding armies of the Hindu rulers, Raja faced the aggression, in which the Hindu army was routed with a terrible cost. Thus, Sabuktagin added in his domain all the territories to the Indus (Priestley, 1874).
Mahmud of Ghazni succeeded by Sabuktagin in 997 A.D. After several times defeating Raja Jaipal and Anandpal takes Lahore in (1023 A.D) and established their empire and extended his power over Western Afghanistan. He carries away the gate of Somnath to Gujrat, spread Islam among his new subjects with a sword. Ghaznavid was the Turkish Muslim dynasty, which captured Afghanistan and many parts of Iran till 1078 AD. Mahmud Ghaznavid was the most influential ruler of this dynasty, who is famous for his 17 invasions so-called the ‘holy wars’ conducted against the Indian sub-continent. He conquered the land from Khorasan (Iran) to Punjab in the 11th century (Jayaram V, 2010). At that time mixture of Hindus and Muslims was found on the land of Afghanistan (Priestley, 1874).
Ghori Dynasty (1185-1206)
The founder of this family was Zuhak (Tazi), who after the tragic uprising against Faredun, king of Persia succeeded. The Ghaznavid dynasty was defeated by the Ghori’s in 1185. Shahab-and-Din Muhammad, brother, and General-in-Chief of Ghayas-ud-Din succeeds to the throne, invades Hindustan (1191) once defeated by Raja Prithvi Raj. Now gains a great victory over the united forces of Hindus. Shahab-and-Din Muhammad (Ghori), afterward falling Afghanistan and Multan takes Lahore and put to death every male member of the Ghaznavid empire (Priestley, 1874). Tragic defeat by the Seljuk Turkman returned to Lahore and divided Afghanistan and Khurasan among his family members. Spread Islam among the people of Ghakkars, Sindh Sagar Doab and the tribes of Tirah. While, invade Turkistan murdered by Ghakkars tribes, on his way near Nilab (Priestley, 1874). Many predecessors of this dynasty struggled to rule on this land till the Shah Muhammad II of the Khwarizmi Empire conquered all of Persia in 1205 and died in 1220. in one of the small towns of Caspian, his son Jalal-ud- Din overthrows him. Mughals army followed him, overtook him into the Indus, but he threw himself in into the river. The Mughals army also crossed the river, advanced to Punjab and subjugate the whole of the country (Ghani, 1987).
In 1219-20 the empire fell into the hands of Mongols by Genghis Khan grandson of Halaku Khan (Dupree, 1973). Taj-ul-Din Yalduz, once a slave of Sultan Ghayas-ul-Din get ahead in Afghanistan, attack Kutb-ud-Din and retakes Ghazni. Dies while making a raid upon Punjab (Priestley, 1874). Sultan Muhammad Shah (Khwarizmi) followed the success in Afghanistan, but the Tatar groups, under the leadership of Changez Khan, invade Turkistan and Afghanistan. Overwhelmed the Sultan, Jalal-ul-Din Shah, son of the Sultan steadily moves forward towards Indus. The thrilling boundary of his sphere, to face the advanced army of the Tatar, while making a position defeated and killed and the Tatar ruler Changes Khan, assumed the sole power retakes Ghazni and over through the last Abbasi Khalifa of Baghdad (Priestley, 1874).
Timurid Empire (A Turkic People) 16th Centaury
An immense area came under the control of the Timur empire, Herat city became the capital of his empire and Kandahar was under the control of his great-grandson Pir Muhammad. During this period a vast number of setups rebuild. His rule started declined in the 16th century due to the rise of Mughals. Timur created a huge empire spread from Russia to Persia which he controlled from Samarkand. In 1500 CE, Babur a descended of Timur driven out from his home city Farghana since 16 century Western Afghanistan yet once more lapsed to Persian rule under the Safavid dynasty (Beverage, 1979).
Mongol Invasion (1219-1221) or Modern Era (1504-1973)
In the 12 century, Afghanistan once again came under the leadership of Mongols leadership Genghis Khan (1167-1227) a cruel ruler who indulge in the demolition of numerous cities Balkh, Herat, and Ghazni (Jayaram V, 2010). The fertile land of Afghanistan was left follows as a large figure of the residents was brutally killed by Genghis khan solders. In the history of foreign attacks of Afghanistan Genghis khan invasions were one of the successful events in the past. He was one of the worth mentioning Babur the great, a descendant of Timur and who in turn was descendant of Genghis Khan. He arrived from present-day Uzbekistan, with the help of Khusro Shah, with an enormous determination, an insignificant monarch Babur ruled most parts of Afghanistan, modern-day Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and then moved to Kabul as capital and serving it as a military headquarter (Dupree, 1977).
On the request of the local nobility and Ibrahim viceroy to Punjab Daulat Khan, to fight against Ibrahim Lodhi the last ruler of the Lodhi dynasty and Delhi Sultanate. Babur gathered a large force of devoted militaries, and the two armies fought a historical battle of Panipat in 1526, in which the already collapsed Lodhi empire desperately defeated against the committed, well planned and organized forces of Babur and entered Delhi. For nearly two hundred years Eastern part of Afghanistan remained under the rule of the Mughals and partly under the Safavids and Persia empire. Afghanistan became an important province of Babur’s empire. Babur died in 1530 and buried in Bagh-e-Babur built by him in Kabul. His son Humayun succeeded to rule over India, Babur inspired by Afghan language and literature, which he introduced in India (Ghani, 1987). Humayun in the meantime faced various difficulties and rebellions in India, at last defeated and rush to Persia to gain the Shah of Persia help. With the help of the Shah army marched towards Kandahar, then annexed Ghazni and Kabul seized a great part of Babur’s domain. On a way to Bukhara Humayun seriously ill, his brother took this illness as a blessing in disguise, marched from Lahore to Afghanistan and took hold of Ghazni and Kabul surprisingly in 1547. The history of Humayun and Kamran are full of civil wars, conspiracies, deception, and brutality, Kabul with all its addictions became the subordinate province of Delhi. Humayun died in 1556.
Akbar consolidated his empire under the supervision of Behram Khan as a regent. Appointed Raja Man Singh as viceroy of Kabul after the death of Hakim his brother. Akbar invaded Kandahar in 1603, after the death of Shah of Persia and appointed Shah Bag its governor. Kakar's had revolted but Shah Bag decisively suppressed them, as a result, Akbar gave the authority of Ghazni as a reward. So, after the death of Akbar in 1605, Shah Bag held under his authority two important provinces of Afghanistan. On the death of Jehangir in 1627 AD. His son Shahjehan succeeded to the throne of Delhi. During his reign Afghan tribes rising revolts, in 1637 AD Shah Abbas of Persia died, Shahjehan sends an army to take Kandahar, which fell in his hands without strong resistance. In 1641, Shah Abbas ll succeeded by Shah Safi took Kandahar again, later Aurangzeb attempted to regain the lost territory but in vain (Ghani, 1987). The region of Kandahar remained a buffer zone between Mughals and Persian’s Safavids, while native Afghan switch support from one side to the other (Jayaram V, 2010). Thus, Afghanistan's geography during this time remained much altered. Baluchistan remained an independent country, Northern Gandhara, Swat and Peshawar valleys were autonomous under their local chiefs or some time remained under Mughals and Khurasan became part of Persia (Ghani, 1987).
Hotaki Dynasty (1709-1738) Afghanistan the Independent Kingdom
An Afghan independent monarchy established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak (an accepted head of all the tribes) a Pashtun ruler (1709-1715), who succeeded after a successful revolution against the Persian Safavids in Kandahar. He joined all the tribes, and deliver his ambition and bloody step, due to the prolonged foreign subjugation. He strained to the people of Kandahar to enjoy independence and over through the yoke now because God made them free. Shah Hussain a son of Mirwais, takes Dera Ghazi Khan, but despite Ghazni's influence and subjugation, Afghanistan remained part of the Delhi kingdom under Shah Alam in 1712 succeeds his grandson Farrukh Saiyar (Priestley, 1874). Mirwais died of a natural cause in 1715, leaving two sons, Mir Mahmood (18 years) and Mir Husain (17 years) his brother Mir Abdullah succeeded the monarchy. A man of low charm, having no art of governing and administration. Thus, Hotak reign lasted after a defeat of Nadir Shah in 1738, in the siege of Kandhare (Steven Bruce, 2004).
Nadir Shah (born in 1688 in Khorasan) a son of Khurasan chief. His real name was Thomas Kuli Khan, father name was Imam Kuli Khan. His gallantry qualities raised him to the commander of the Persian army, defeated many enemies and turned towards Eastern Afghanistan. About Herat, tumbling to submission the stormy Abdali tribes enrolls them in his Army. Nadir Shah overwhelmed Kandahar and takes it from Shah Hussain (Ghazali), removes Abdali from Herat to Kandahar and putting an end to the Ghazali generality. In 1731, Abdali marched against Isphan, defeated and destroyed the Afghans might. For such service rewarded by Khorasan, Sistan, Kerman and Mazandaran, four finest provinces of his empire. This victory followed by many suppressions of revolts and raised him as the most powerful ruler of Persia. On 26th February 1736, he was crowned as a king of Persia under the name of Nadir Shah, accepted throughout Persia, only faced resistance from Bakhtyaris a plundering tribe but was crushed by Nadir Khan (Ghani, 1978).
Nadir Shah turned towards Kandahar but faced strong resistance from Mir Husain to accept him. Nadir blocked Kandahar and built a new city, called Nadir Abad. In 1747, Nadir Shah of Persia succeeding in the assassination of Muhammad Shah Durrani, recognized his rule as an independent ruler supported by a Pashtun tribal council. Nadir Shah takes Kabul in 1738, send an envoy to the king of Delhi but was killed on his way. Nadir Shah took expedition against Hindustan, his lieutenant holds Khyber Pass in Peshawar but imprisoned for a month. Shah with the help and guidance of the tribal people through the path of the mountain reached Peshawar valley. Marched towards Delhi from Lahore, while spread ruins and destruction, eventually takes Delhi in 1739. Nadir returned to Isfahan with a huge booty sum of Rs. 200, 000, 000. Fixed his Eastern border till Indus, he was murdered by his own guard and retaliated by Ahmad Shah Abdali, one of his general (Priestley, 1874).
Failure of the Mughal Empire and the Rise of Marathas
Mughal empire decline stood due to a weak and incapable successor, and 27 years of long war among the Marathas-Mughals war (1680-1707) led to the quick territorial expansion of Marathas. Under Peshwa Baji Rao, Gujrat, Malwa, Rajputana and many parts of Mughal empire territories and South of Delhi came under the Marathas control. In 1737, Baji Rao (Nana Saheb) defeated the Mughals and captured Punjab as well in 1758. This brought the Marathas into the direct conflict with Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1759 Durrani raised an army from the Pashtun and Baloch tribes and joined with Indian allies-the Rohilla Afghans. Both sides tried to gain support from the Nawab of Awadh and Shuja-Ud-Daulah. Daulah's preference to join the Afghan-Rohilla alliance as considered it ‘Army of Islam’. This coalition brought a drastic defeat to the Marathas. During (1707-1757) Marathas expanded significant control of India, occupied Delhi in 1758, captured Lahore and flock out Timur Shah Durrani. The boundaries of this empire stretched from Indus and Himalayas in the North and Peninsula to the South (Sarina, 2008).
Durrani Empire (1747-1826) Saddozai Kings of Afghanistan 1748-1809, in Herat 1842
Ahmad Shah Durrani, in October 1847, declared himself as the first ruler of Afghanistan, united the Pashtuns tribes and founded Afghanistan. After the death of Nadir Shah in 1747, in October 1747 a Loya Jirga (grand council) settled nearby to Kandahar, in which Ahmad Shah Durrani was appointed as a leader of the new empire. He belonged to Abdali tribes which he changed to Durrani, on the proposal of Sabir Shah. After consolidated his empire in Kabul moved towards Peshawar and Hazara, was interest in Rawalpindi where he found living space. Took six expeditions against India, in his first mission encountered the army of the Mughals near Ambala. His third intrusion led to the conquest of Delhi, in his way also captured Multan and Lahore, fourth terminated the great battle of Panipat in which Mahratta's crowd were disastrously routed. His fifth and sixth expedition was against the Sikh's rebellion in India. He belongs to a political background, his father remained the Governor of Herat and died during a fight while defensive the Afghans (Priestley, 1874).
To fight with Cancer disease, Ahmad Shah died on 20th Rajab 1773 in Kandahar, after a rule of 26 years (Ghani,1987). His oldest among his four sons, Timur Shah (1773-1793) then sobador of Herat at that time, became the next ruler of the Durrani empire. This reign considering as the founding stone of modern Pakistan and Afghanistan and Ahmad Shah Durrani attributed as a ‘Father of the Nation’ (Sarine, 2008). Timur Shah, re-taken Multan and Sindh and suppressed revolts there. Timur Shah having 24 sons in which some were succeeded to become ruler of the Durrani empire. His fifth son Shah Zaman ascended to the throne from (1793-1801) after the death of Timur and took Kandahar without slaughter. Then Mahmud Shah (1801-1803 first reign) the elder brother of Zaman Shah ruled on Afghanistan. His era was not the termination of civil strife but opened a new chapter of greater violence.
He remained substituted by Shah Shuja (First Reign 1803-1809, Second Reign 1839-1842), Another son of Timur. With the help of Hafiz Sher Muhammad son of (Shah Wali Khan), raised a huge army and marched towards Kabul. After a successful expedition moved on the way to Kashmir but was imprisoned by Ata Ullah Khan, which later released by Shah Shuja, upon this Mahmud Shah passed from the prison to the throne. He gave charge of Herat to his brother Haji Feroz-ud-Din, while Shah Shuja established himself in Kabul and Peshawar, so for that time, two kings were essentially governing in Afghanistan. A long tussle continued in which Afghans declared the Saddozai family as an enemy, who wants to fall off the race of Afghans. Mahmud Shah fled to Herat, where he died shortly (Priestley, 1874). Ayub Shah (1819-1823) one more son of Timur deposed his brother Sultan Ali Shah, far ahead he was overthrown and probably slain in 1823.
Barakzai Rule and the British Influence
Kabul and Ghazni fell into the hands of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, son of Painda Khan a leading soul of Barakzai faction. Along disorder prevailed in the kingdom of Ahmad Shah, as reduced his dominance till Kabul, Ghazni, Peshawar, and Kandahar. While Attock and Eastern part of the country was under the control of Ranjit Singh. Balkh annexed by Amir of Bukhara, and Amir of Sindh declared their independence (Priestley, 1874). Barakzai's rule remained till Western Afghanistan, as Herat was still in the sphere of Saddozai King Kamran.
King Nadir Khan (9 April 1883 Birth- 8 November 1933 death)
Cousin of Amanullah Khan, Prince Mohammed Nadir Khan an associate of Mohamedzai Royal family. He defeated and executed Habib Ullah Kalakani on 10th October 1929, an ethnic Tajik, and professed himself as a king of Afghanistan. formerly, he served as Minister of war, Afghan Ambassador to France and as a General and Commander-in-Chief of Afghanistan Army. He combined authority and unrestrained the reforms of Aman Ullah Khan in favor of a steadier tactic towards transformation and modernization. Nevertheless, he was shot to death by Abdul Khaliq a university student during a graduation ceremony in Kabul (Dupree, 1973).
King Zahir Shah (16 October 1914 Birth-23 July 2007 Death)
Zahir Shah, ruled the country from 8 November 1933 until overthrown in July 1973. In the first 30 years, he abandons powers from a fraternal uncle, Mohammad Hashim Khan and Shah Mahmud Khan (Chesterman, 2005). He established friendly relations with all the major powers and cold war allies, though he made reforms to modernize the country during the 1960s. Zahir Shah was on a trip to Italy when his government was toppled by surprise coup. Daoud staged a military coup and declared Afghanistan as a republic. Zahir Shah remained neutral during WW-II, after the war, Zahir Shah recruited many foreign advisors for assistance and modernize the country. The first modern university built during this period. Shah remained in exile for twenty-nine years in Rome, after Najibullah death and Soviet withdraw in 1979, Mujahidin groups favored Zahir Shah to return Afghanistan (Datta, 2014). Pakistan’s ISI feared on Zahir Shah stance and negative publicity against the Durand Line issue considered it a great divider among Pashtuns of Pakistan and Afghanistan (Ali, 2001).
Afghanistan passed through many upheavals, but its history is also very interesting that how one after another dynasty rule and defeated by his successors. Afghanistan restored the past glory, while became a member of League of Nation and received official recognition from the US. Enlarge trade with many notable countries to signed trade agreements at the end of the 1930s (Jentleson, 1997). Now Afghanistan became a member of many international and regional organizations. As a strategically important state in the region consolidating his position on different forums.