In the last four decades, China has transited from a closed country to major power status by adopting pragmatic policies. This article analyzes the transformation in China’s foreign policy with its futuristic plan of building a harmonious world through peaceful co-existence and win-win cooperation. By adhering to principles of Panchsheel, foundations for prosperous China were laid. The notion of peaceful coexistence is the hallmark of Chinese foreign policy which has helped in resolving border issues withs neighbors by peaceful means. By remaining neutral and playing the role of a mediator, China has successfully managed regional and global conflicts. President Xi Jinping’s vision of the Chinese Dream is, in fact, a holistic concept for taking China forward among leading nations in the world and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation for a prosperous future. Chinese foreign and domestic policies are now delivering and Pakistan being its Iron Brother can gain opportunities from China’s peaceful rise.
Peace, Harmony, Chinese Dream
Napoleon Bonaparte once said, “China is a sleeping giant. Let her sleep, for when she wakes, she will move the world.” The People's Republic of China is an emerging major power that shares its borders with 14 countries and has diversified its foreign policy, which in fact shapes the environments of the region and the globe as well. China opened itself for the outside world in the 1970s, when one of the Cold War rivals showed its keen interest in China and the region. Chinese foreign policy revolves around five basic principles. The principles of cooperation with neighbors and with far friends for the sake of their empowerment remains the utmost importance to China. China’s rise is an economic rise and the country took the lead in the world economy in 2010, leaving Japan behind and becoming the second-highest economy of the world after the USA. Currently, China is investing in underdeveloped areas of the world such as the Central Asian Republics and Africa. It initiated the largest economic project of the ongoing century, the Belt and Road Initiative, which comprises numerous projects consisting of land and sea routes. China is also in the process of establishing its naval bases in the African region to make the routes piracy free. Pakistan and China are friends since the birth of the People's Republic of China. China has stood with Pakistan through thick and thin and in return, Pakistan assisted China in its opening up. The current Chinese government has initiated different projects such as CPEC with the Pakistani government, which will boost Pakistan’s economy in the coming years.
Significance of Research Article
The South Asian and Middle Eastern region is undergoing a profound transformation. While Pakistan has skillfully managed its relations with two Major Powers China and the USA, however, relationships with the USA have proved to be transitory and event-based. China’s peaceful rise and enhanced international stature provide enormous opportunities for Pakistan due to the special significance of bilateral relations, which have withstood the tests of times and have endured with every passing year. While President Xi Jinping’s vision of actualization of the Chinese Dream has more to do with the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, but it has foreign policy dimensions as well, that contribute to building a harmonious and prosperous world. The last three decades are success stories for China in almost all domains; therefore, China’s peaceful rise offers enormous opportunities for Pakistan as its near neighbor. This article is, therefore, contemporary and offers a solution to problems we confront today by drawing lessons for the Chinese model of progress.
The article has been developed using a qualitative research method by using primary and secondary data.
The article provides answers to the following research questions;
Q-1 What is the notional understanding of the Chinese dream and how it is being manifested by China?
Q-2 What are the cardinal aspects behind the Chinese philosophy of peaceful co-existence and win-win cooperation?
Q-3 What lessons can be drawn for Pakistan for diversifying its policies using Chinese policies as a template?
The theory of Liberalism has been applied in developing this article. The world is now transforming from power politics to complex interdependence and mutual accommodation. Chinese philosophy also highlights win-win cooperation and peaceful co-existence. The strategic vision of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and economic cooperation with every region is the testimony of evolving international order.
The policy of peaceful coexistence developed by China has been the landmark of China's relationship with every country. The policy that catapults China's economic excellence and made China eligible to be considered as a major power in the world of today. The policy specified the importance of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non- interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit. Ever since its emergence, the People's Republic of China has been a firm believer in world development rather than attaining hegemony, therefore, any policy generated from China has been in the form of betterment and mutual benefit for all.
"Five Principles of Chinese Foreign Policy" (Vang, 2008) is composed from the point of view of the People's Republic of China on foreign policy and universal legislative issues, relations, and strategy. It contains the historical backdrop of how China set up and has led and rehearsed relations with 165 nations on the planet and how this depends on the Five Principles of peaceful coexistence. This book talks about global relations and the standards of Chinese foreign policy between the People's Republic of China and twenty selected nations. The connections between China and these twenty nations uncover that the administration of the People's Republic of China constructs foreign relations in light of the five principles of peaceful coexistence (Vang, P, 2008).
The speech by Foreign Minister Wang Yi at the opening of Symposium on International Developments and China Diplomacy in 2017 stresses the point that in a time of uncertainty, growing destabilization and the possible shift of balance of power, the Chinese policy has been and will remain the same. Foreign Minister Yi states that "China believes it is essential to advance peace, development and win-win cooperation, foster a new form of international relations and build a community with a shared future for mankind” (Wang.Yi, 2017). This kind of mindset, which came into existence in the ‘50s, is the underlying reason why China stands where it is today.
A country which faced virtual isolation and was going through the drastic aftermath of events such as the great leap forward in 1959, is now the creator of Belt Road Initiative, which according to Wang Yi has signed "agreements with 80 countries and organizations, conducted institutionalized cooperation on industrial capacity with over 30 countries, and built 75 overseas economic and trade cooperation zones in 24 countries under the Belt and Road framework. Chinese businesses have invested over US$50 billion and created near-200,000 local jobs in the countries along the Belt and Road" (Ibid). In just over five decades, a country with a crumbling economy and with minimum diplomatic relations with the world turned the tides and became one of the biggest investors of the globe with one of the leading economies.
Ambassador Sun Weidong mentioned in his speech in National Defence University, Pakistan in September 2013 that China has been working hard to develop friendly and cooperative relations with all South Asian countries, actively promoting trade and investment in South Asia, enhancing cooperation in interconnection, energy and telecommunication fields, expanding personnel exchanges among China and South Asian countries” (Sun, & Weidong, 2013). By acknowledging the liberalist approach of International Relations, People's republic of China turned its focus on regional economic cooperation and diplomatic ties with its neighbors. Therefore, even if a conflict of interest arose between China and a neighboring state, China solved (and solves) the issues through trade and diplomatic means.
Peaceful coexistence has long been a key expression in China's strategic reasoning and is a beneficial doctrine that offers China a way to impact the global system. Liselotte Odgaard argues this in “China and Coexistence: Beijing's National Security Strategy for the Twenty-First Century” (Odgaard, 2012). China's program of peaceful coexistence highlights total sovereignty and non-obstruction in the internal issues of different states. The author recommends that China's approach of working inside the international system and with non-state actors, for example, the UN means to win for China more prominent power and influence without requiring overstretched exercising of military power or increasing financial burden. The author inspects the starting of peaceful coexistence, improvements added by China, and its current appeal to the third world developing nations. She uncovers what this foreign policy approach offers China through a comparative study of ambitious powers in the last two centuries and how it helps China in its historical claims that are its disputes in the current era (Ibid).
The reason why China was able to dig its way out of an extreme crisis in the '50s was due to the state's selfless and generous mindset. Currently, China has given Africa, a country with no direct interest in China, interest and political ties free loan of around $60 billion. President Xi has stated, " China’s investment in Africa does not come with any political conditions attached and will neither interfere in internal politics nor make demands that people feel are difficult to fulfill"
Disentombing of a delicate plant trembles the layers of Earth and empowering desires of a state always threatens the empowered ones. Once Napoleon had said that “Let China sleep; when she wakes, she will shake the world”. Thucydides` trap points out that the peaceful economic rise of China is creating nervousness and anxiety for the USA and will lead towards competition and conflict. Allison says that this anarchic world of realism will compel both the USA and China towards Darwin's theory of survival as historically it has been proved that every rising power is considered as a challenger by the powerful states and the ensuing sense competition results in a war between them. All these perspectives are taken from USA`s lens of observing China's economic growth but contrary to it China is wishing something else (Allison, G. T, 2017)
China is going to nullify the historical examples of competitions and conflicts. It has learned from the tussles of other states that not competition but cooperation is the key to achieve national interests. Taking a view of Chinese Foreign Policy, the country is a non-believer of direct confrontation. It believes that collective benefits or win-win situations are more productive than a zero-sum game or absolute gains. China has projected herself in such a way that the anarchical structure of the international environment could not make hurdles for its rise and no state could consider her as a competitor. Xi Jinping said, “we will make China great and strong again” and Liu Mingfu argued that this statement of the President means “a stronger nation with stronger military” (Mingfu. L, 2013).
Contemporarily, with the initiation of “OBOR” and “BRI” projects, China is also nullifying the traditional ‘Power Transition Theory’ which was always proved in a realistic way. Acting upon the liberalist Western model, according to which states must be fully modern, economically liberal and transparent in their policies in order to become strong, China has emerged as a powerful contender in world politics. Jacques in his book “When China Rules the World” wrote that, ‘China is on the right path to rule the world and when it does, it will make the global structure, which will suit her’. He argued that China is growing tremendously but with liberal values like; peace, cooperation (Jacques, 2012)
The book “China-Pakistan Relations: A Historical Analysis” (Ali, 2017), studies the landscape of the China-Pakistan relationship from 1950 to 2015 when the Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Pakistan. Ghulam Ali takes a historical approach and tracks the development of the cooperation reinforced by domestic, regional, and international factors. Contemporary issues related to the friendship have also been analyzed with a distinct emphasis on the successful launch of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). While deliberating CPEC, the author probes into the growth of Sino-Pak collaboration particularly in fiscal and trade relations and people-to-people interactions. This book helps to ascertain the relationship between the two iron brothers and how the Chinese policies of win-win cooperation in its foreign relations have helped Pakistan and China mutually. This book also aids in understanding how Pakistan can learn from this all-weather and time tested relationship to incorporate the Chinese ideals in its own foreign policy to better its foreign relations in the international community and especially bring a greater semblance of peace and stability in its region (Ali, 2017).
Transformation of Chinese Foreign Policy in Retrospect
Chinese civilization is one of the oldest civilizations. As the Chinese Empire had a tributary system, under which all the neighboring states were under direct Chinese influence, the Chinese Empire was the most powerful and strongest in Asia. During the 19th century, the Manchu Dynasty of China was about to collapse, and western imperialism and colonialism were at its peak (Leary, G, 1991). Western nations like Britain, France, Germany, and Russia forced the Chinese leadership to handover territory along the coast and managed to create a sphere of influence in China. After the fall of the Manchu Dynasty, the Chinese Tibet, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Manchuria came under Western control. Chinese leaders like Yuan Shih-K’ai and Sun Yat-Sen decided to unite China. Sun Yat-Sen gave three principles to unify China; these three principals were nationalism, democracy and people’s livelihood. Then came Chiang Kai Shek, who followed the Yat-Sen principles to make China stand on its feet. He said, “We will be pro any country which helps us to put China on her feet” (Johnston, A. L. (2009). In 1949, under Mao Zedong, the People’s Republic of China emerged on the world map. Mao was considered as the most influential leader in the history of China. He brought changes in the domestic and foreign policies of the Chinese. He also accepted the Sun Yat-Sen formula of democracy and livelihood. Mao believed in the political and economic stability of China because China was under colonial control. Due to the suppression of the Chinese, Mao considered that evolution in policies was mandatory. The main objective of China under the Mao era was to secure state sovereignty and its borders. China became a nuclear power under Mao Zedong's leadership. China modernized itself by developing its military, economic and political sectors. China’s objectives include the rise of China and to gain influence at the international level. Under Mao Zedong, the Chinese adopted the policy of development and bringing economic and political reforms to make China a great power without any external help. Mao rejuvenated the Chinese nation to gain international status. Anti-hegemony and anti-imperialism were never the policy objectives of China. Under Mao’s administration, China had multiple disputes with neighboring states. China had disputes with India, the Soviet Union, Manchuria, Mongolia, Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Indochina. In the middle of the 19th century, the Cold War raging between the US and the USSR increased tensions for China, as regional rivalries created do and die situations. Chinese leadership decided to build national strength and harmony first and later they adopted the policy of peaceful co-existence (Pye, L. W, 1972). During the period of the cold war, Pakistan came to set good relations with China. Today’s Pak-China friendship is the result of hard circumstances that both neighboring states confronted. After the death of Mao, the Chinese emphasized more on peaceful coexistence. The geography and historical background of China create such circumstances that constrain it to maintain peace and stability at the regional level. Their ‘Panchsheel’ policy was widely implemented, to maintain peace with neighbors and great powers (Vang. P, 2008). They resolved their disputes with India, Japan and the Soviet Union. One of the major implications of Chinese peaceful co-existence is that China has successfully resolved its issues with its neighbors. They demarcated the land borders with Russia and Vietnam and also signed an agreement with New Delhi to achieve peace on the border side with India. China and India once fought a deadly war in 1962, but China still emerged as a great power on the international stage. Today China’s status as a major power is due to the pragmatic leadership of the Chinese people who understand the geographic realities of States and put forward such policies that help China to stand as a nation. China has always adopted a non-interference foreign policy, whether it’s the humanitarian crisis or the ethnic issue. The Chinese leadership had a clear view that war and disputes result in the failure of the state. If any state wants development and innovation, then the policy of non-aggression and peaceful co-existence is the only way. Now the Chinese agenda of peaceful co-existence is widely practiced and accepted.
The contemporary Chinese foreign policy is more open and extrovert as they are investing worldwide and attracting foreign direct investments to the State (Odgaard, L, 2012). China had signed multiple cultural, economic and military exchange programs with its neighbors and Middle Eastern states. China believes in the common development method. According to Chinese policymakers, a state cannot survive in isolation and cannot develop without the development of neighboring states. China is, therefore, extending its theory of peaceful co-existence to all nations across the globe.
Chinese Model of Managing Conflicts and Pursuing Development
China has remained an important marketplace for western firms, besides, dialogue with the Chinese has remained an arduous assignment. Experts have been inquisitive to know the distinctiveness in Chinese negotiation, conflict management styles, and models. Cambridge British English dictionary defines conflict as “an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles”, or fighting between two or more groups of people or countries” (Dictionary.Com, 2018). At its core, it is a social phenomenon, that arises from the interactions between more than one person. More precisely, it initiates when a given set of people exchange paradoxical views or thoughts. This study will unveil how Chinese people approach conflicts and to what extent the conflict management style has impacted the aftermaths of their negotiations. Consequently, compromising and avoiding have been the most desired and favorable methods of conflict management in China whereas accommodating and competing, in turn, accompany more satisfaction throughout business negotiation. The conflict management model encompasses domination, avoiding, obliging, integration and compromising (Ho. Ching. W, 2000). Firstly, integration incorporates a high perturb for self and others, directed regarding problem elucidation, with careful evaluation and appropriate responses to the complication being encountered with. However, it is suitable mostly for complex issues, taking in inputs from the opposing parties to arrive at a collective commendatory solution. This method sought to combine both the interests along with the capabilities to reach the desired result. Secondly, obliging attempts to minimize the significant potential differences emphasize greatly on common aspects in order to satisfy the grievances of the counterpart. This style indicates that one would overlook his own views in favor of accommodating to the concerns of the other party. Often applied whenever one is requested something intervention in something that has little or no connection to his own interests, yet at the same time wishing to appease the other’s request or needs. Thirdly, domination attempts a behavior that compels one’s own position as to win the argument, frequently narrated as the win-lose situation. This happens whenever one seeks to look at his own interests or ways, regardless of potential opposition. Often applied during a situation of the difference of power or responsibility, particularly for relatively uncomplicated or routine circumstances. Fourthly, avoiding is explained as a low concern for self as well as others, frequently via behaviors of withdrawing or sidestepping problems. Here one seeks to refrain from the situation, or person entirely. Hence any potential problem is not addressed or satisfied by either party. Most commonly applied when one believes that interaction with another party would only reinforce negativity or failure and a wish to bypass that. Finally, Compromising is most described as the give-and-take concept, both the engaged parties arrive at a mutually acceptable agreement, whilst giving something up in the process. Whenever we have two parties with mutually exclusive interests, they reach a common solution, though it’s often temporary, so this method deals with coming up with a compromise to be accepted. Both sides agree to give up on something in order to avoid the calamity of conflict and attempt to move forward. Most often seen only proper as a temporary solution until better alternatives are found (Ibid). Today’s China is far stronger in the economy, military as well as in the political arena. Owing to its rapidly increasing economy, it has unprecedentedly developed good relations with developing countries generally and particularly with underdeveloped countries. This is because China has adroitly managed to thwart its conflicts within and outwards with the world. If China had not solved its conflicts, then it would have not been able to reach the renowned status in the international arena that it has now. China has successfully salvaged itself from the Chinese Civil war, 1950’s Battle of Chamdo, the notorious Korean war, Taiwan crisis, Tibet uprising, border campaign with Burma, Sino-India war, Vietnam war crisis along with some minor crisis that accompanied China alongside. In the contemporary world, China has a few conflicts with either its neighbors or with the United States. Although the ongoing crisis of the South China Sea with Japan is indeed horrendous China will cope with this too as it has done previously. China’s major conflict today is the trade war with the United States which has been defined adeptly.
Chinese Policy of win-win cooperation – An International Buzzword
“When China wakes it will shake the world”
These words by Napoleon Bonaparte were said for a nation who have seen the worst of times and aroused back again as the best of nations. Chinese civilizational history is far more diverse and abstruse for it has been ruled by several hereditary monarchies or dynasties; expanding, re-shaping and unifying China. The Chinese have seen hunger, terror and all such challenges and this has forced them as a nation to stand up against all the odds. The 19th century witnessed the Chinese diaspora and finally, the Xinhai revolution brought an end to the last of the imperial Qing dynasty-ship and the Republic of China emerged in 1912. Years of political waves leading to the civil upheaval by a communist party led by Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China by the year 1949 and that was the time when the Chinese actually began to burn the candle at both ends. Catastrophes like overpopulation, famine, political unrest, social disintegration, and economic collapse caused them today to become one of the world’s great powers. The Chinese never interfered in any state’s personal affairs and they always believed in negotiations as the best solution to end a conflict. By 1978, Deng Xiaoping took power and new economic reforms were introduced as the Chinese stature rose day by day. Today China is seen as a newly emerging power who is giving a hard time to states like the US and Russia. China is currently hailed as a potential super-power with a high sphere of influence over the world by its special win-win policy, where the profit is the benefit shared by all members that is why it has caught most attention and become an international buzzword. China, in her transformation of becoming extrovert from an introvert, has greatly paved the way for multilateralism in her foreign policy and this not only entitled her with the status of a rising power but also the biggest economy in the world. China seeks a peaceful rise for herself as well as her narrative of the win-win situation is being channelized through multilateralism for the collective benefit of the international community. China has opened-up her policy for all on equal grounds including developed and developing countries. The notion of peaceful coexistence and multilateralism in Chinese foreign policy has led her to become a part of many international organizations to ensure cooperation not only in economic and security areas but all other relevant aspects. For example, China is a member of the UN, ASEAN, SCO, WTO, NAM, IAEA, SAARC, NSG, etc. Most important of all is the SCO of which China being initiator has played a significant role in its development. SCO is actually based on the EU model to stabilize, develop and prosper the Asian region. The initial purpose of SCO was the border settlement between the member states and to exterminate ‘three forces: terrorism, extremism, separatism.’ However, to the Chinese government, the SCO is not only a source of security in an uncertain and threatening world, but increasingly, an opportunity for expanding its market, diversifying its energy supplies, demonstrating to the world the benign nature of China’s rise, and advocating a new type of multilateral cooperation ( JIA Qingguo). China’s GDP is increasing at a larger pace than any other state, thus capable of influencing SCO with greater share. SCO is being more internationalized as states including Iran, Syria, Azerbaijan, Israel, Ukraine, etc. wish to join SCO to get mutual benefits via cooperation and multilateral policy of China. Chinese slogan of the Win-Win situation attracted the world economic patterns. This slogan is based on the Chinese new dimensions of the cooperation they introduced to the globe. Chinese foreign policy explicitly shows the cooperation strategy rather than the competition. This cooperation explored the parameters of the Communo-liberal perspective in academia and this slogan of the Win-Win situation came into the corridors of power. China, an ideologically communist country opened its policies towards trade and economic routes.
China has flooded the global market with its products and this influx seems to be in favor of the states. Variety and values aggrandizers the behavior of this Win-Win situation. Under-developing countries are deprived of economic development and it has become a part of the Chinese agenda to trigger their economies. China came up with the plans of the co-existence in the globalized structure of the world. Different multilateral forums and trade routes enhanced trade trends with China. These trade trends followed the mutual benefits behavior which furthermore escalated the Win-Win slogans. The economic zones of China flourished in almost every region beyond the military conflicts of the state. Indo-China trade is one of the examples. These synergic patterns made the slogan as the Buzz word in its essence. Empirical evidence of the Chinese win-win slogan is the Chinese response to the 2007-8 economic crisis of the world. Response to this event made the slogan more famous and active. Economic circles and corridors silently adopted Chinese economic supremacy. At the time of the world economic crisis, when the sole superpower USA was at the edge of bankruptcy and market failure, China came up with the solution to drag the USA out from this failure. China believes in co-existence and they claim that this can be achieved through the win-win situation. Same as at the end of WW2, the USA formulated the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. China followed the principle but without having the intention to become a hegemon or to gain supremacy. Their foreign policy clearly indicated that the survival of the world economy is interconnected with the USA that’s why it is necessary to tackle the economic crisis. The Chinese version of interdependence pulled the USA from the crisis and helped the world economic patterns. This event promulgated China’s intentions to have co-existence and this coexistence highlighted the Win-win situation slogan for the peaceful survival of the world.
Evaluating Lessons for Pakistan in Managing Foreign Policy in the Turbulent Regions of South Asia and the Middle East
Given the implications and intricacies involved in making of a country’s foreign policy, it often requires skilled statecraft, that is why states calibrate their policies accordingly. Pakistan’s location in South Asia is strategic and geographically well placed which makes it extremely vulnerable as well. With the eternal Indian threat on one side, the turbulent state of Afghanistan on another and a bitter reminder of the past; Bangladesh, Pakistan is in a fragile position. In terms of its foreign policy towards South Asia, Pakistan has always feared the Indian threat, and this has dominated its foreign policy. The question of stability in South Asia has often been raised since the prediction that the coming century will be known as the ‘Asian century’. But, how can stability in South Asia be achieved in the backdrop of tense Indo-Pakistan relations? Pakistan believes in peaceful coexistence, based on the principle of sovereign equality. However, at the same time, Pakistan cannot remain aloof to the imbalance of strategic stability created in the region due to lopsided Western policies (Sarah Siddique Aneel, 2016). Pakistan also believes that SAARC has the potential of promoting peace, prosperity, and development in the region of South Asia. However, the active engagement of all member states is required which has been missing since India scuttled the SAARC summit. The core issue of discontent between Pakistan and India since partition has been the issue of Kashmir. Kashmir’s struggle for independence and its demand for the right of self-determination against the aggressive Indian occupation has been diplomatically supported by Pakistan. This, in turn, has caused a lot of problems in Pakistan-India relations. The measures that can be taken to resolve this is through the formal and proper representation of this issue from Pakistan’s side on international forums such as the UN. For resolving these regional tensions and paving a way forward for our foreign policy, we need to acknowledge the role of regional organizations first, such as SAARC, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and (ECO). The common threats and challenges can be addressed, and preventive strategies can be worked out. Furthermore, collectively dealing with security issues in the region can prove to be quite beneficial for all the states of South Asia. The prevalence of Trade and especially Sea Trade between the states of South Asia can result in multilateral economic integration. An environment of peace, prosperity, cooperation in the region would offer a myriad of opportunities and incentives to all the South Asian countries in the form of faster economic growth, poverty alleviation, enhanced employment rate, economic interdependence, infrastructure development, energy cooperation, and regional connectivity.
The Middle East comprises of the region that stretches from the countries in North Africa in the west to Pakistan in the east, and from turkey in the north to the Indian Ocean in its south, and has always enjoyed a significant position in world affairs due to its strategic location. Saudi Arabia one of the most important countries of the Middle east famous for two of the holy places Mecca and Medina enjoys a dominant status in the Muslim world. Iran another country has always been a compatible and forceful challenger to Saudi Arabia’s dominance. Their enmity has its roots before the existence of Saudi Arabia as a dominant power and even continued when both of the countries were the allies of the US. Keeping all of this situation in mind it is important for the current government of Pakistan to formulate such policies that would help Pakistan to strengthen its relations with both of the Muslim states i.e. Saudi and Iran. Saudi Arabia is the Sunni capital state and Iran having Shia supremacy in its state had rivalry due to their strategic interests as well as because of the opposing religious ideologies. However, Pakistan being a Muslim country is not aligning with any particular sect and by remaining neutral it could help in cooling down the heat of this issue between both the rival states by working on the common points of Islam. Imran khan in one of his speeches has addressed that Pakistan needs to improve its relations with Iran and as well as with Saudi Arabia, so this should be the major aim of the newly elected government of Pakistan.
China’s peaceful rise and momentous economic development, supported by its focused and principle-driven foreign policy, provides developing countries like Pakistan with a framework to diversify its foreign policy in the best way to achieve national interests and international influence: